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English Schools at the Reformation, xvi, 122, and 346 pp. Part I sums up and explains by reference to previous history, Part II; which contains the Certificates made under the Acts for the dissolution of Colleges and Chantries, so far as they relate to schools, and the warrants issued under Edward VI for the re-grant of endowments to the few schools which were re-endowed by him as Free Grammar Schools. Augustine abuses Homer, as Plato did, for the immoral behaviour of his gods, and he comments on dropping the h in human as being considered a worse crime than hating humans.

The rhetoric school, except for the very select few, like Cicero or Quintilian himself, who went to what is sometimes called the University of Athens, seems to have performed for the upper classes the function of the Secondary School and University, as well as that of the Inns of Court and Theological Colleges.

These recommendations, however, certainly did not prevail, and the historians and orators were read in grammar schools, and rhetoric and declamations practised in them at Rome and afterwards throughout Christendom till at least the eighteenth century.

Soon convinced to the contrary, he was always ready to impart instances of earlier schools which he came across in his wide reading in ancient manuscripts and books. Then commonplaces (communes loci), declamations against gaming or adultery, generalities to be used in particular cases of attack against e.g. As Seneca said, 'We learn for the schools, not for [page 19] life'. Augustine was born at Tagaste in Numidia, on the north coast of Africa, on 13 November, 354, of a Christian mother and a still heathen father. made a catechumen, a ceremony practically equivalent to our infant baptism - baptism being delayed till at least the age of thirty - he attended the elementary school, the grammar school, and the school of rhetoric just in the same way, and learnt the same things, as the 'heathen' Juvenal or Quintilian had done. 14) what miseries he endured when obedience to teachers was set before him that he might flourish in the world and distinguish himself in eloquence and gain wealth and honours.

Yet long after the facts had been published, when the [page vi] Head Master of a certain considerable Midland school asked for information as to its origin and history and was told that there was evidence of its existence in the days of Edward the Confessor, he responded by entreating me not to try and make a fool of him. Rounded periods, far-fetched conceits and out-of-the-way expressions gained applause in the schools, but they tended to destroy real oratory and hastened rather than hindered the decadence of public life. 97-108, in a letter to a friend, sending him a copy of a speech he made to his fellow-citizens of Como on giving them a public library, incidentally mentions that, instead of a gladiatorial show, he had established exhibitions (annuos sumptus in alimenta ingenuorum pollicebamur), since to make any one willingly undergo the tedium and labour of education, not only premiums, but endowments were required. 69-79, was the author of a system of endowed schools, being, according to Suetonius, 'the first to endow Latin and Greek rhetoricians with a stipend of 100,000 sesterces' [= 800, says Mr. 'I was put to school to get learning of which I knew not what use there was; and yet, if slow to learn I was flogged.

An usher is contemplated, but other assistant masters seem unknown.

Classes are mentioned, but as to how many classes there were and how many in a class, no indication is given.

Yet I found he firmly believed in the fable of the foundation of Oxford University by Alfred the Great; the demonstration of its absurdity by Parker, and the revelation of the true origin of universities by Denifle and Rashdall not having reached him. Report of the Royal Commission on Secondary Education, V, 57-76, 1895. It is in the age of Quintilian that we first find private persons endowing schools and founding exhibitions. The institution of both grammar and rhetoric schools becomes more organized and more widespread in every generation. For this was deemed praiseworthy by our forefathers.

Some idea of the true history of our schools has now penetrated to scholastic circles, but it has certainly not reached most antiquaries or historians, still less the general public, in spite of the detailed stories, beginning before the Conquest in many cases, already published in the Victoria County History of England of more than a dozen counties. Many before us, passing through the same course, had appointed these troublesome ways, multiplying labour and sorrow upon the sons of Adam.' His faith indeed was shaken, because he prayed to God to escape a flogging, yet flogged he was.

The plan of these books, however, excludes references to authorities: an exclusion peculiarly unfortunate for historical statements, many of which are so contradictory to received opinions that they will appear at first sight incredible to a great many people, and which rest largely on manuscripts still for the most part unprinted and unpublished. For I liked Latin, not indeed that which the preparatory masters taught me (quas primi magistri), but that which those who are called grammarians (grammatici) teach.

There is, however, not a single statement in this book not founded on verifiable authority. For as to the primary instruction, in which reading, writing, and arithmetic are learnt, I thought it no less of a burden and a punishment than the whole of Greek.' Yet now he would rather forget the wanderings of Æneas or the death of Dido which he wept over than the more certain learning of reading and writing.

in that of Hannibal relating the passage of the Alps, and persuasive arguments (suasorias), as e.g. 'So that those old enough for more advanced studies remain at school and learn rhetoric of grammarians, with the absurd result that a boy is not thought fit to go to a master of speech before he has learnt how to speak.' Quintilian fixes no age at which boys should leave the grammar school for the school of rhetoric; except 'when they are fit'.

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