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The main difficulty in deciding how the Spanish March was governed during the early 9th century is the impossibility of compiling a definitive list of consecutive marquises from the surviving primary sources.

The Histoire also says that Beros successors, Bernard, Berenger, Sunifred (Seniofredo), Aledran, Udalric and Hunfrid, all ruled the combined territory which was only separated into its two components in 865.

The evidence to support the hypothesis that the two areas were governed jointly appears meagre.

Apart from the coastal counties of Empries, Girona and Barcelona, most of the area is mountainous and presumably communication was extremely difficult in the 9th and 10th centuries.

Given this situation on the ground, the imperial Frankish authorities may have considered it impractical to appoint a single ruler to exercise overall charge in all areas of the March of Spain, relying on the power exercised locally by the strongest counts, and maybe with some loose oversight arrangement from the marquis of Septimania to the north.

Amalric's immediate successors abandoned Narbonne completely and established their court at Barcelona, until King Atanagildo moved his capital in Spain to Toledo in [554].

It is likely that Visigothic influence persisted in the territory of the original kingdom of Narbonne, approximating to what is now the Languedoc-Roussillon region of France, and that this contributed to the united development of Catalonia on both sides of what is today the French/Spanish border.

The armies of his grandson, the future Emperor Louis I, occupied Girona, Urgell and Cerdanya in 785 and besieged Barcelona in 802, establishing the so-called "March of Spain" which later evolved into the Catalonian counties.

The first counts in the March of Spain, appointed by the Carolingian Frankish rulers, are recorded in the early 9th century.

After the Moors entered Spain in [710/11] and defeated the Visigoth regime based in Toledo, their influence quickly spread throughout the Iberian peninsula.

The area around Barcelona provided the Moorish settlers with a base from which raids were launched into France, where the prospects for booty were richer than in Spain, until their defeat at Poitiers by Charles "Martel" in 732.

If this suggestion is correct, the Spanish March would have been the only example among all the different marches established along the frontier areas of the empire of a march without a centrally appointed single ruler.

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